Autor: UNOi

Fecha: 29 de septiembre de 2014

Teaching writing skills, Part II: support for the teacher

by Elaine Gallagher As mentioned in our last issue of UNONEWS, here are some items to help support you in teaching writing skills to your […]

Elaine Gallagher 12 cegby Elaine Gallagher

As mentioned in our last issue of UNONEWS, here are some items to help support you in teaching writing skills to your students.

  1. The study guide-sheet to self-check for errors in writing
  2. How to organize a notebook (Suggestions)
  3. Writing across content areas
  4. Ideas for narrative writing assignments
  5. Sample rubrics for writing.

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1. The study guide-sheet, so students will know what they need to check in order to present an essay to the best of their abilities. You will need to review this    chart with the students the first time you give it to them.  Also, if you have special instructions, be very clear abut your expectations.

EXAMPLE: the guide-sheet asks students to check for «complete sentences».

If, however, you’ve been showing them how to write using quotations, writing what people say, you need to explain that we don’t always speak in complete sentences. Therefore, if a student writes:

John asked me if I was going to the party.
«No.»
«Why not?»
«Because I hate large groups of people.»

We have to explain that this is correct.

Checklist for students to self-correct work before submitting it

                         PROOF-READING CHECKLIST FOR STUDENTS

     Your name: ____________________________  Date ______

      Assignment Title: __________________________________

 

  • ___ Did I check to see that I spelled all the words correctly?
  • ___ Did I indent each paragraph?
  • ___ Did I write each sentence as a complete thought?
  • ___ Do I have any run-on sentences? If so, fix them.
  • ___ Did I begin each sentence with a capital letter?
  • ___ Did I use capital letters correctly in other places?
  • ___ Did I end each sentence with the correct punctuation mark?
  • ___ Did I use commas, apostrophes, and other punctuation marks correctly?
  • ___ Did I read my paper aloud to myself or to a friend?

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2. Notebook, loose-leaf style, will need 8 dividers.

ORGANIZATION OF THE NOTEBOOK  (8 sections)

  1. The date and the day’s work          (Copied from the board.)
  2. Trivia: Fact of the week                   (Copy; later the answer)
  3. Vocabulary                                         (Words and simple definitions (not dictionary)
  4. Class notes                                         (Organized by dates)
  5. Maps, graphs, and tables                 (Organized by dates)
  6. Quizzes and tests                              (Organized by dates)
  7. Research (by topic, A-Z)                 (Print-outs from Internet)
  8. Miscellaneous                                  (Additional material)

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3. Writing across content areas

  • Dedications (to Dad, Love, Mary)
  • Brochures
  • Newsletters
  • Anthologies (list of books)
  • Yearbooks
  • Book blurbs (short description)
  • Thank you notes
  • Greeting cards
  • Summaries
  • Recipes
  • Lists (for shopping, gifts, parties, trips, things to do)
  • Calendars
  • Messages
  • Bulletins
  • Posters
  • Signs
  • Charts
  • Letters
  • Postcards
  • Conversations
  • Want ads
  • Announcements
  • Song lyrics Magazine articles
  • Guides
  • Assignments
  • Commercials

 

  • Books
  • Stories
  • Reviews (of books, movies, restaurants, products)
  • Author page (for books)
  • Directions
  • Notices
  • Newspaper articles
  • Reports
  • Interviews
  • «How to» manuals
  • Advice columns
  • Surveys
  • Questionnaires / Surveys
  • Evaluations
  • Instructions
  • Essays
  • Advertisements
  • Memos
  • Poems
  • Diaries
  • Scripts
  • Comic strips
  • Rules
  • Proposals (what you want to do)
  • Invitations
  • Journals
  • Crossword puzzles

 

 

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4. Ideas for narrative writing assignments 

An expressive narrative…writing «a story»

The writer will sequence events into a story on a specified topic:

PRODUCT:                          Story

ORGANIZATION:            Chronological (progression through time)

STORY ELEMENTS:       Use the basic elements of a short story with a fully-developed beginning, middle (the body), and end.  This must be more than a sequence of events.  Writer must establish some sort of problem which is solved during the events of the story.

TRANSITIONAL WORDS and PHRASES: then, after, after that, soon, while, later, before, during, next, when, meanwhile, as soon as, finally, at last

NARRATIVE WRITING

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. FIRST: Setting, location, characters, time of day (once upon a time, far away, in old times when wishes came true, on a space station in the year 2,134)
  3. THEN: Present the problem
  4. LAST: A solution
  5. CONCLUSION: happy ending (They lived happily ever after.  They woke up from a dream. They arrived home safely. Etc.)

———————————————————————————————————-

     A TYPICAL STORY FORMULA

     SOMEBODY    –    WANTED   –    BUT    –    SO    –   THEN

——————————————————————————————————–

    ELABORATION STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE WRITING

     1.      USE similies or metaphors…..color, shape, size, texture

(The clouds looked like cotton balls. The lion was like a huge version of my pet cat.)

  1. USE conversation…..two complete exchanges
  1. USE adjectives or adverbs….1 or 2 with nouns or verbs

(The tall, handsome prince silently glimpsed the princess in the ugly, dark tower.)

 

TO SUPPORT WRITING:

  • USE GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS TO ORGANIZE YOUR THOUGHTS.
  • KEEP A VOCABULARY NOTEBOOK.
  • KEEP A LIST OF IDEAS FOR WRITING TOPICS YOU LIKE.
  • WRITE SOMETHING EVERY DAY!!! (even if it’s only a sentence or two, or a journal quick-write.

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5. Rubrics for guiding and scoring writing

RUBRIC #1

             SAMPLE RUBRIC SCORING FOR WRITING    

            Use grade equivalents, such as:

            4 = Excellent, well-above expectations:    95+………………  9 – 10

            3 = Very good, above expectations:           85 – 94 ………….  8  – 9

            2 = Good, meeting expectations:                75 – 84 ………….  7 –  8

            1 = Below expectations:                                65 – 74 ………….  6  – 7

            0 = Do it again:  no score    (Seek help.)  Failure is NOT an option.

 

            SCORING EXPECTATIONS

SCORE 4

  • Correct purpose and audience
  • Effective elaboration
  • Consistent organization
  • Clear sense of order and completeness
  • Fluent, good vocabulary choices

SCORE 3

  • Correct purpose and audience
  • Moderately well elaborated
  • Organized, but possible digressions
  • Clear, effective language

 SCORE 2

  • Correct purpose and audience
  • Some elaboration
  • Some graphic details
  • Gaps in organization
  • Limited language control

SCORE 1

  • Attempts to address audience
  • Wrong purpose
  • Brief / vague
  • Unelaborated
  • Wanders off / on topic
  • Lack of language control
  • Poor or no organization

SCORE 0

  • Off topic, or copied the writing assignment
  • Blank paper, or did not write enough to score
  • Language other than English
  • Illegible or incoherent

Students can work together in pairs to help each other…NOT to correct or grade each other’s papers, but to read each other’s papers and make comments, suggestions, and advise about necessary corrections.

USE THE STUDY GUIDE-SHEET SHOWN  EARLIER IN THIS ARTICLE.

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RUBRIC #2

RUBRIC SCORING EXPLANATION FOR WRITING

1          Many errors

            Lack of sophisticated vocabulary

            Verb tenses incorrect

            Spelling errors

            Grammar errors

            Unclear, incomplete

 

2          Errors in 2 or 3 of the items above

           

3          Very few errors, but not perfect

            Unclear

 

4          Clear to understand

             No obvious errors

 

There are many rubrics on Internet if you want more from which to select.

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