Autor: UNOi

Fecha: 10 de septiembre de 2013

Planning & Supporting Strong English Programs (Parts 7 & 8)

By Elaine Gallagher, Ph. D.    PART 7 – FINAL ANALYSIS and YOUR ROLE IN A GOOD ENGLISH PLAN  ———————————————————————–  TEACHERS: The previous six sections have […]

Elaine Gallagher 05 cegBy Elaine Gallagher, Ph. D.   




The previous six sections have presented you with information, ideas, and activities to support your teaching for the 21st Century, preparing our students to be strong, secure, confident, and fluent English users, guided by the philosophies of bilingual education the 21st Century….on the road to school transformation: CLIL, flexible assessments, oral fluency, planning and management skills, and overall, consistent teacher growth.  

  •  On-going teacher improvement means on-going student improvement.





  • Basics a professional educator should know
  • Professional glossary
  • Annotated Bibliography



Fundamental people and programs you need to know about IF you want to be a “professional educator.»

Know about, and be able to discuss, the research and results from these essential thinkers:




Know about the research and results from these essential people / topics:

Benjamin Bloom on higher-order thinking sills

Tony Buzan on mental mapping and graphic organizers

Jack Canfield on self-esteem

Lee Canter on assertive discipline

CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning (David Marsh)

Virginia Collier on second language acquisition and success

Barbara Coloroso on discipline

Art Costa on higher-order thinking skills

Common European Framework: International language standards

Jim Cummins on second language acquisition

Carolyn Evertson on classroom management

Thomas Guskey on evaluation

Madeline Hunter on effective teaching practices

David and Roger Johnson on cooperative learning

Stephen Krashen on second language acquisition

Robert Marzano on effective school practices

Abraham Maslow on self esteem and reaching one’s potential

Maria Montessori  special needs students & preschool

Jean Piaget research on the four stages of child development

Carl Rogers on humanistic psychology and education

Mike Schmoker on school reform and improvement

Lev Vygotsky on language learning and social interactions

Harry Wong on classroom management

Add more names as you grow more articulate about educational leaders.

Stay current to be a real professional.                       



(Words that are commonly used in Bilingual Education)

acquisition: To learn something gradually, in an informal way, such as by games, songs, social interactions, and life experiences.

CEFR: Common European Framework of Reference: a document completed in Switzerland in 1991 outing the characteristics of  language learning in the four basic skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening, distinguishing the various levels among these four skills into six descriptive categories: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, with A1 being the most basic and C2 the most proficient.

CENNI: Certificación Nacional de Nivel de Idioma.A scale used in Mexico to distinguish language abilities, similarto CEFR. but with 20 divisions of abilities.

CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning is a philosophy of  language acquisition developed in Finland, under the leadership of David Marsh, and leading educators/linguistic specialists. Dr. Stephen Krashen’s «Natural Approach» to language acquisition strongly influenced CLIL philosophy.

critical thinking: is the thinking required when questions asked require multiple answers or various points of view….using the higher order verbs in Bloom’s Taxonomy can result in the use of critical thinking.

filter: is a psychological «block» that humans construct when they want   to exclude themselves from a lesson, a response, or a conversation

fine motor skills: are the muscle skills required to perform physical actions using small muscles, such as writing, sewing, cutting with pointed scissors, coloring, etc.

gross motor skills: are the muscle skills required to perform physical actions that use large muscles, such as running, throwing a ball, kicking a ball, etc.

higher order thinking: thinking using the application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

MKO (More Knowledgeable Other):  refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a task, process, or concept.

production: being able to produce something from the brain that has been memorized over time, such as vocabulary words.

recognition: refers to the fact that humans can recognize words in a language, and follow oral instructions BEFORE being able to produce these words from memory.

UNESCO: United Nations Education, Social and Cultural Organization, which supports projects world-wide in these three areas.

ZPD  (The Zone of Proximal Development). The ZPD is the distance between a atudent’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration, and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurrs in this zone.




Armstrong. Sarah. 2008. Teaching Smarter with the Brain in Focus. Scholastic, New York and Buenos Aires.  

This book is full of practical support on building a thinking classroom, and explains how to structure lessons appropriately, using brain-based guidelines. The author gives ideas on how to integrate movement, visual, musical, and social interactions in ways that spark learning.

Blanchard, Kenneth, et al.1990. The One Minute Manager Builds High Performin Teams. William Morrow and Company, Inc. New York.

This is a classic book in the «One Minute Manager» series, simplifying team-building for positive results.

Blankstein. Alan. 2010. Failure Is NOT an Option. 2nd edition. National Education Association and Corwin Publishing, jointly published with the Hope Foundation.

This book explains and clearly illustrates the six principles for making student success the only option. Collaborative teaming, involving schools, teachers, the families, and community, helps to build sustainable leadership capacity.

Bloom, Benjamin S. 1980. All Our Children Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

This book reviews and explains Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Thought, first presented in 1956, and still in use today because of its clear vision of how humans learn and develop critical thinking skills. No other educator explains it better, so Bloo is still in vogue and highly regarded among educators, despite the age of his theory.

Buzan, Tony . 2003. Mind Maps for Kids: An Introduction. Thorsons.

Canter, Lee & Marlene. 1993). Succeeding with Difficult Students. Santa Monica, CA: Canter and Associates.

Collier, Virginia. & Thomas, W.P. 2004. «The Astounding Effectiveness of Dual Language Education for All Students». NABE Journal of Research and Practice.

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. 2001 Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Council of Europe. Cambridge University Press.

Coyle D. 2007. CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning: «Towards a connected research agenda for CLIL pedagogy». International Journal of Bilingual Education and  Bilingualism, pages 543-562

Cummins, Jim. 1985. Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy. ISBN-10:0887441327  ISBN-13:9780887441325

Edwards, V. (2009) Learning to be literate: multilingual perspectives. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Gallagher, Elaine, Jiménez, Elsa Patricia 2004. How Do I Know If I Am Teaching Well? Secretaria de Educación Pública, de Coahuila, México.

This is a teacher handbook with 7 self-quizzes, describing various techniques on how to be an excellent teacher.

Gallagher, Elaine & Garcia, Cristina. 2009. «A New CLIL Method», (Chapter 7). Aplicaciones Didácticas: Consejería de Educación, Junta de Andalucía, CETA, Universidad de Córdoba, SPAIN  

Gardner, Howard. 1985. Frames of Mind. Harper Collins.

The introduction to Gardner’s theory of «Multiple Intelligences».

Goleman, Daniel. 1995. E.Q. Emotional Intelligence. Bantam Books.

Explains the basis of skills to be developed for children to exhibit emotional intelligence

Jensen, Eric. 2005. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. 2nd edition.  ASCD Press. Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development Press.

This book looks at brain-based teaching and gives concrete examples and ideas on how to connect brain research with curriculum, student achievement, and staff development. It is full of research-based information, mentioning many of the educators listed in this bibliography.

Kagan, S. 1994. Cooperative Learning. Kagan Cooperative Learning.

Krashen, S. 2003. Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use.

Heinemann. Portsmouth, N.H.

Krashen, Stephen D. 1987. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.  Prentice-Hall International.

Krashen, Stephen D. 1988. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.  Prentice-Hall International.

Dr. Krashen is one of the world’s educational leaders in theories of second language acquisition, the natural approach, and bilingualism. Much of his research, which began in 1984, was incorporated into CLIL philosophy.

Marzano, Roberto. Nine Essential Elements to Classroom Success. 2003. ASCD Press. Association  of Supervision and Curriculum Development, 

This book gives a simple formula on how to have successful students. The nine elements are highly compatible with UNO. The key to success is that the entire staff needs to follow all nine strategies; therefore, staff development and cooperation from the administration will be imperative to implement all nine of Marzano’s recommendations.

Schmoker, Mike. 2005. Results Now! Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development: ASCD Press.

This book looks critically at educational practices that waste time, and that do not reach intended goals of teachers and school, directors. Schmoker continues with suggested solutions so that schools, with strong commitment to excellence, can obtain positive results…now!

Tomatis, Alfred A. 1991.  Pourquoi Mozart?.  Paris, France.

This book is about the use of music therapy in the classroom to both relax and stimulate students’ thinking abilities

Vygotsky, S. Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934).

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wiggins, and McTighe, 1998 First Edition; 2005, 2nd Edition. Understanding by Design, ASCD Press. Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development Press.

This book presents ideas for reaching learning goals, by using  «big ideas» as a core, then deciding on the «essential questions» to be asked during the lessons, based on Wiggins’  «backward by design» model, meaning you have to know where you want to go in order to plan the steps to get there.  «Back-mapping» and a «formal task analysis» are other names for models similar to «backward by design». The goal of these models is the same: to reach understanding of the material being taught.

Wiggins and McTighe, 2004. Staff Development Workbook for Understanding by Design,  ASCD Press.

This workbook has designs and templates to use in planning and development of the «learning by design» philosophy / method.

Wong, Harry and Rosemary. The First Days of School. 2nd Edition. 2009. Harry Wong Publications, San Francisco.

This classic book of classroom management ideas that work is now in its second edition.. Based on the experiences of 1000’s of teachers, the Wongs’ text clearly gives examples of how to achieve mastery with students, classroom management skills, and being a «professional educator».



AUTHOR: Elaine Gallagher, June 23, 2013



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