Autor: UNOi

Fecha: 12 de agosto de 2013

Planning & Supporting Strong English Programs (Part 4)

By Elaine Gallagher, Ph. D.    PART 4 – SUPPORTING TECHNIQUES    The Learning Process and Scaffolding Learning and Teaching Styles What Makes a Great CLIL Teacher? […]

Elaine Gallagher 07 cegBy Elaine Gallagher, Ph. D.   

PART 4 – SUPPORTING TECHNIQUES   

  • The Learning Process and Scaffolding
  • Learning and Teaching Styles
  • What Makes a Great CLIL Teacher?

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 The Learning Process and Scaffolding

       The learning process is different for each individual, because we have various learning patterns, learning preferences, distinct perceptions, and learning styles, as we have discussed previously in this book.

       No matter what our learning preferences are, there are specific areas of teaching that ALL learners can benefit from, and which are techniques that ALL teachers need to utilize daily.

       SCAFFOLDING is a term used to discuss the support of students so they can show success in areas that they might not able to de=o by themselves. Since the PNIEB supports students’ success, realizing that all students do not learn at the same rate, scaffolding is encouraged.

       A scaffold is a metal frame, used on the exterior of a building, to support construction workers, window-washers, or painters who are working on the building. They need the scaffold to support them as they work, so they won’t fall.

       Scaffolding is what a parent might do to support a baby that is learning to walk. They hold on, support the child, until the child can walk all alone.

        Scaffolding in the classroom is when the teacher supports the students on the road to success, by guided practice with written work, or whispered clues when a student doesn’t know an oral answer, or permitting students to work in pairs or small teams, helping each other.

       Other ways that teachers can provide scaffolding include the following:

       TEACHERS NEED TO PROMOTE:

  • Understanding , which comes from clear explanations and guided practice

       TEACHERS NEED TO USE:

  • A variety of activities, songs, oral activities, discussions, maps, charts, graphs, reading aloud to students, silent reading,creative writing, games, kinesthetics, whole group, individual work, pair work, cooperative learning in small teams (3 – 5 students)
  • Strategies & techniques, questioning techniques, critical thinking
  • Pace (time on-task), 90% of class time should be ALT = Academic Learning Time, with no time wasted. ALT means that students and the teacher are actively involved, working, interacting, speaking in English, writing,in teams, or pairs, or individually 90% of the class time. There is no «dead time».

      TEACHERS NEED TO:

  • Organize material and have it ready: In order to use time wisely, it is imperative that teachers have plans and materials ready and in place. This is the sign of a professional educator.
  • Procedures and routines. (Routines are automatically performed.)

            A professional educator sets procedures the first week of school, and continually reminds the students of each procedure until they become routine, with the students doing them automatically.

            The number one problem in the classroom is NOT discipline. It is the absence of procedures and routines.

            Following is a list of the types of things teachers can choose to establish as bases for procedures, leading to become routines with steady practice by students.

            Routines set up the class up for better learning, resulting in success…

Procedures to rehearse with students until they become routine

Entering the classroomGetting to work immediately

When students are tardy

End-of-period class dismissal

Listening to and responding to questions

Participating in class discussions

When you need pencil or paper

Keeping your desk orderly

Checking out classroom materials

Coming to attention

When students are absent

Working cooperatively

Changing groups

Keeping a notebook

Going to the office

When visitors are in the classroom

Knowing the schedule for the day or class

Keeping a progress report

Finding directions for each assignment

Others???

Passing in papersExchanging papers

Returning student work

Getting materials without disturbing others

Handing out playground materials

Moving about the room

Going to the library or computer center

Headings on papers

When a student finishes work early

Asking a question

When a school-wide announcement is made

Walking in the hall during class time

Responding to a fire drill or other emergency

Responding to an earthquake

Responding to a severe weather report

If the teacher is out of the classroom

If a student is suddenly ill

Saying «Please» and «Thank you»

        STUDENTS NEED TO LEARN:

  • How to use a textbook

            This means that students need to know where to find the Table of Contents, or the Index, or the Glossary, or the Contents headings in the text book, etc. 

  • How to take notes                                                                                 

            Students need to be taught how to select the important information, how to outline, and how to summarize so they can make wise use of time, and utilize reading and listening skills.

  • How to work in teams

            Teachers need to teach teamwork, not simply assign it. They need to assign roles for each student on a team. There needs to be a role for every child on a team for a team to function well and productively.

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Learning Styles  and Teaching Styles

            Remember that you and your students learn in a variety of ways. We need to vary our teaching styles to meet their needs. 

LEARNING STYLES: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Auditory

Visual

Tactile

Talks to selfReads aloudMemorizes easilyLikes spelling beesLikes to sing

Talks a lot

Likes music

Recalls numbers and facts

 

Likes pictures and bookLikes maps, charts, graphsFinds page in a book quicklyReads silently

Follows patterns well

Has good sense of shape

Proofreads well

Likes to draw & color

Notices details

Works puzzlesLikes manipulativesLikes to play with clay, mud, san

Likes to build things

Taps, hums, moves frequently

Feels, touches everything

Enjoys fixing things

Good at sports

 

TEACHING STYLES THAT  COORDINATE WITH

STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES

Auditory

Visual

Tactile

Use tape recordersUse CD’s

Have spelling bees

Use phonics

Encourage rhyming

Sing songs

Read aloud to students

Use audio with films

Use chalkboardOverhead projector

Label things

Play matching games

Match cards: words with definitions

Fill-in words to songs on a worksheet, while listening

Draw pictures of a story

Show films

Use many manipulativesPicture puzzles

Play-acting, role play

Teach sign language

Form letters with clay

Dance, move to music

Act out a story

Produce a film

 

USE VISUALS: COMPUTER, I-PAD, NOTE-TAKING, POSTERS, CHALKBOARD, MOVIES, GUEST-SPEAKERS, PHOTOS, MAGAZINES, BOOKS, etc.

PROMOTE ORAL FLUENCY BY HAVING STUDENTS SPEAKING TO EACH OTHER, TO THE TEACHERS, IN FRONT OF THE CLASS, OR IN PAIRS, OR IN TEAMS.

THINKING SKILLS TO BE DEVELOPED:

Part 4 Thinking Skills 

======================================================

  • What makes a great CLIL teacher?
  1. Only speaks ENGLISH is English class, and ONLY Spanish in Spanish class.  Whatever language being taught, it is the only one spoken in class.
  2. NEVER translates. Gives examples in the target language or uses diagrams, pictures, drawings, or actions.
  3. Never lectures. Class work is always based on active participation.
  4.  Has students talking approximately 70% of the time.
  5. Uses «guided practice». = practice DIRECTLY monitored by the teacher.
  6. Precedes each class with a short review from the previous class, and has a preview of what today’s class will be. (A  FOCUS)
  7. Adapts and uses various examples for better understanding.
  8. Recognizes that real learning is based on understanding.
  9. Emphasizes high level vocabulary, never «talking down» to students.
  10. Speaks fluently, but at a normal pace, using high vocabulary.
  11. Varies questions, activities, and examples to avoid monotony
  12. Knows that most humans learn best visually, so uses many visuals: movies, Power Point lessons, computer-based programs & projector, etc.
  13. Never asks, “Do you understand?”.  The teacher tests the students’ knowledge by questioning them, during the lesson, not at the end. Checks for understanding by frequent questioning.
  14. Prepares the class thoroughly. Familiarizes him/herself with the books, materials,  and the use of teaching aides.
  15. Allows students to discover rules through practical examples. Never gives detailed, formal, and dry grammar lessons. Instead, students are challenged to USE correct grammar.
  16. Motivates and challenges students with new concepts through dialogue, gestures, contrast, analogies, differences, similarities, arts, music, physical activities, mental maps, and graphic organizers.
  17. Prompts a struggling student, then repeats the question, but never helps or interrupts a student who knows the answer.
  18. Makes positive corrections and follows up with a quick/short drill. Never imitates a student’s mistakes.
  19. Presents the students with frequent opportunities to review the material with questions, role play, graphic organizers, and summaries.
  20. Allows students to feel good about themselves, even when they make mistakes. Mistakes are normal when learning a language.
  21. Oral fluency, not grammatical structures, are most important.
  22. Always greets students in a cheerful manner. Begins and ends each lesson punctually. Never wastes time.
  23. Exhibits patience at all times. Never shows bad moods.
  24. Shows interest and concern for the students’ progress.
  25. Motivates and challenges students through brisk and interesting teacher-student exchange, asking questions that require high level, critical thinking.
  26. Helps students to feel appreciated and secure. Reduces the «filter» that blocks learning.
  27. Is fair to all students, calling on each one in an equitable manner, such as using students’ names on cards for a fair distribution of names.
  28. Realizes that language learning is an on-going life-time process. Uses rubrics, portfolios, and class participation as part of the assessment process.
  29. Uses cooperative learning, pair activities, and various interactions.
  30. Understands that in learning and language acquisition, the rule to remember is that RECOGNITION PRECEDES PRODUCTION. Great CLIL teachers knowthat students can recognize and understand vocabulary and many spoken words/phrases BEFORE they are actually able to produce them independently and spontaneously.

BE A GREAT TEACHER!

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This is the end of Part 4.

Next, on to part 5: «Plannning»

 

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