Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Part II
By Elaine Gallagher Multiple Intelligences (Dr.Howard Gardner) Which ones are your strengths, teachers? How can you best meet students’ needs and learning styles? HOW??? By […]
Multiple Intelligences (Dr.Howard Gardner)
- Which ones are your strengths, teachers?
- How can you best meet students’ needs and learning styles?
- By using a variety of intelligences, so that each month, you have presented activities for students that utilize, at least once, EVERY intelligence listed. In this way, you can meet all learners’ needs and interests, over time.
Types of intelligences that Gardner has discovered:
- Linguistic intelligence
- Logical-mathematical intelligence
- Spatial-visual intelligence
- Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
- Musical intelligence
- Interpersonal intelligence
- Intrapersonal intelligence
- Naturalistic intelligence
How should we use M.I.?
- We tend to teach using the ways that we best learn, so be aware of that fact, and use different activities to reach all your students.
- We can identify the intelligences of our learners and teach them how to develop different strategies.
- Vary activities to include different intelligences each week.
Identify which ones you use in your planner so you can be more conscious of them.
On the following pages, teachers, you will see:
(1) Ideas for using Multiple Intelligences in your classroom. They can be adapted for students of all ages.
(2) A summary chart, listing the eight intelligences, how they are exhibited, what the student enjoys doing, and how each one can be used in the classroom.
(3) A chart for your text book, for various units of each book, to show you an activity in the book, and which Multiple Intelligences it is related to, so that you can be sure to reach ALL your students during each week or month.
Once you have seen how the correlation is made between the work in the book and a multiple intelligence, you will be able to do the same as you continue in subsequent units. To assure that you are varying the activities to include ALL the MI’s during the week, a simple way to keep track is by using your planner or text. For each day, make a notation, in a column, so it will stand out, of the MI used that day or that week.
Abbreviations may simplify this task.
V (Verbal Linguistic) L (Logical Mathematical), S (Spatial- Visual) K (Bodily Kinesthetic), MR (Musical Rhythmic), Inter (Interpersonal), Intra (intrapersonal), N (Natural).
(#1) IDEAS FOR ACTIVITIES THAT SUPPORT M.I.
Try some of the following activities, teachers, and you will help to develop your students not only in English, but in multiple ways!
You can help students to develop and strengthen these areas by providing activities which reinforce the following multiple intelligences. Most activities usually employ MORE than one intelligence, and that is why students learn more using activities than with only traditional reading or copying.
1. LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE:
- Understands the teacher’s explanations easily
- Gives great presentations
- Reads well, and enjoys reading English and/or other language
- Writes well, and enjoys writing English and/or other language
- Learns word definitions easily
- Develops an expansive vocabulary with little effort
- Exhibits excellent spelling skills, almost naturally
- Keep a journal or a diary.
- Write a poem.
- Make a word web.
- Read a book, a novel, a poem, or an essay, and explain its theme.
- Tell story, a fable, or a tall tale.
2. LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE
- Understands and uses grammar rules easily
- Information gap exercises are easy to complete.
- Good at doing word puzzles
- Sees patterns in words and numbers
- Good number sense, and can reason logical answers in mathematics
- Loves logic puzzles
- Remembers addresses and telephone numbers easily
- Brainstorm ideas
- Decipher codes
- Discover or invent patterns
- Make a graph
- Solve logic puzzles
- Make predictions
- Use spreadsheet software
3. VISUAL – SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE
- Likes to draw, design, and do arts & crafts
- Enjoys picture puzzles
- Enjoys word puzzles
- Can put things together very easily, without written instructions
- Can repair things, seeing clearly how they fit together
- Sees things as shapes
- Is good at geometry
- Has a “good eye” for decoration, architecture
- Uses charts, diagrams, and maps
- Uses pictures/drawings
- Learns a great deal from videos and movies
- Can figure out words from their shapes
- Imagine or pretend, and then draw it
- Build or draw in 3-D
- Make puppets
- Practice drawing with perspective, shading, coloring
- Play with geometric shapes
- Enjoys greatly making or reading maps
4. BODILY – KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE (Characteristics)
- Pronunciation activities are easy for the student.
- Enjoys participating in theater and drama activities
- Loves to do hands-on projects
- Uses and can easily «read» body language, nonverbal communication
- Great at sports and physical activities
- Can dance and do rhythm activities with skill
- Clapping to keep beat with words
- Perform a play or a skit
- Act out a role
- Perform a dance
- Play sports
- Do science with experiments
- Put together a puzzle
5. MUSICAL – RHYTHMIC INTELLIGENCE (Characteristics)
- Pronunciation, intonation, rhythm, and stress of words
- Loves to sing songs
- Likes jazz chants
- Enjoys listening to music, can «feel» music
- Can work better with classical music playing softly
- Remembers words to songs and poems if they are keyed to music or a beat
- Use musical software
- Create a song, poem, or chant
- Learn an instrument to play
- Sing in a chorus
- Listen to music of different times and cultures
- Evaluate music that you like and don’t like, and why
- When students are working on projects or a test, play classical music softly.
6. INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
- Enjoys group and pair work
- Talking with other students is productive.
- Editing classmates’ writing and speaking
- Interviewing people
- Fluency activities
- Great with others as a leader or follower
- Debate an issue
- Write a collaborative paper or report
- Mediate conflicts
- Plan an event
- Tutor a classmate
- Practice solving problems as a team
- Help others less fortunate, such as organizing and collecting food or clothing for the poor
7. INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
- Enjoys and prefers independent study
- Good at self-assessment, understands and works on self- improvement
- Loves journal writing and self-expression in private, through writing
- Enjoys working alone on a computer
- Writes poems or an autobiography
- Keeps a diary to express ideas and feelings
- Thinks and feels deeply, has characteristics of emotional intelligence (Dr. Daniel Goldman)
- Understands himself/herself well
- Is independent, and exhibits maturity for his/her age.
- Keep a “To Do “ list
- Prioritize items
- Observe your own mood changes
- Read silently
- Keep a private diary of your thoughts and ideas
- Write your autobiography
- Make your family tree
- Write an ethical code, or rules of conduct
- Think about thinking (metacognitive)
- Weigh alternatives
8. NATURALISTIC INTELLIGENCE
- Loves to be outdoors more than anything
- Has a garden patch where he/she plants flowers, or edible herbs/plants
- Enjoys, to a high degree, planting, hiking, fishing, hunting
- Can survive in the wild with no need for supermarkets, television, electricity
- Is challenged by the idea of “survival” in the wild
- Is extremely interested in the natural sciences
- Wants to know about everything to do with nature: astronomy, biology, oceanography
- Appreciates the work of farmers, hunters, fishermen and wants to emulate them
- Go to a zoo, farm, aquarium, or forest
- Observe planets, stars, comets, space, visit a planetarium
- Visit environmental parks, the ocean , rivers, or lakes
- Watch nature videos and discuss the themes presented
- Learn taxonomy system and names
- Plant flowers or a tree
Now, continue with the next chart, (#2) which summarizes what you’ve read about Multiple Intelligences using classroom activities..
Then use the correlation chart (#3) using your text book, or workbook, to identify sections of the text or workbook that supports a multiple intelligence, and decide which one.
By the way, many activities incorporate several MI’s at the same time, which is why using activities helps to stimulate and support various multiple intelligences, so you interest and involve more students than if you only had read pages from the book.
You are going to teach the class to sing «Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes».
1. Verbal Linguistic intelligence because they read the words to the song, and they expand their vocabulary with words for body parts.
2. Musical because they are singing
3. Kinesthetic.….They are moving, relating to words for body parts.
4. Interpersonal.….They are working in a group.
One activity can provide for FOUR intelligences!
See how easy it is to identify and use Multiple Intelligences!
(#2) EIGHT WAYS OF BEING SMART
Based on Multiple Intelligences Theory by Dr. Howard Gardner
|Area of Intelligence:||Is strong in:||Likes to:||Learns best through:|
|Verbal – Linguistics||reading, writing, telling stories,memorizing dates,thinking in words||read, write, talk,word puzzles.make lists||reading and hearingwords, debates,discussions, speaking,creative writing, usinga computer|
|Mathematical – Logical||math, logic, problem-solving, patterns,reasoning||solve problems,question, workwith numbers,experiment, think,organize things||working with patterns andrelationships, analyzing,classifying, categorizingworking with the abstract|
|Visual –spatial||reading maps, graphs,and charts, drawing,solving puzzles andmazes, imaging,visualization images||design, draw, build,daydream, create, lookat pictures, watch films||working with pictures orworking with pictures orcolors, visualizing, usinga computer for working|
|Bodily –Kinesthetic||dancing, athletics, crafts, using tools,moving, acting||move around, touchand talk, use bodylanguage||touching, moving,processing knowledgethrough bodily sensations|
|Musical –Rhythmic||singing, picking upsounds, rememberingmelodies and rhythms,playing musicalinstruments||sing, hum, play amusical instrument,listen to music||rhythm, singing, melodies,listening to music, usingrepetition with clapping orrhythmic activities|
|Interpersonal||understanding people,leading, organizing,communicating, resolving conflicts,selling||have friends, talk topeople, join groups||sharing, comparing,relating, working inpairs or cooperativegroups, interviewing|
|Intrapersonal||understanding self,setting personal goals,recognizing strengthsand weaknesses||work alone, reflect,pursue interests||working alone, doingself-paced projects,having space, reflecting|
|Naturalistic||understanding nature,making distinctions,identifying flora andfauna||be involved withnature, astronomy,planting, readscience-based stories||working in nature,exploring living things,learning about plants,animals, natural events|
Now, teachers, you are ready to look at your Multiple Intelligences guide and compare the charts with what you have learned about MI. You will be able to see some of the activities in our SURPRISE! books which correlate with MI. After using the guide frequently, you will be able to identify more examples of activities that use Multiple Intelligences….USE THEM for better student success!
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1991, fall). Intelligence in Seven Phases. Paper presented at the Centennial of Education at Harvard. Published in the Harvard Graduate School Alumni Bulletin, 36, (1), 18-19.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books.
Gray, H. J., & Viens, J. (1994). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Understanding Cognitive Diversity in School. National Forum, 74 (1), 22-25.
Hatch, T., & Gardner, H. (1990). If Binet Had Looked Beyond the Classroom: The Assessment of Multiple Intelligences. International Journal of Educational Research, 415-429
Kornhaber, M., Krechevsky, M., & Gardner, H. (1991). Engaging Intelligence. Educational Psychologist, 25 (3&4), 177-199.
Krechevsky, M., & Gardner, H. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Contexts. In D. Detterman (Ed.), Current Topics in Human Intelligence, 4.
Krechevsky, M., & Kornhaber, M. (1993, May). Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Implications. Paper prepared for Mind Management 2000 Conference, Zurich, Switzerland.
Krechevsky, M., & Seidel, S. (1998). Minds at Work: Applying Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. In R.J. Sternberg & W. Williams (Eds.), Intelligence, instruction and assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Walters, J., & Gardner, H. (1985). The Development and Education of Intelligences. In F. Link (Ed.), Essays on the intellect. Washington, DC: Curriculum Development Associates.