English teacher’s support guide: Part V. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Learning
This guide was prepared by Elaine Gallagher and includes seven parts that UNONEWS will be publishing once a week. Being at the present time Director […]
This guide was prepared by Elaine Gallagher and includes seven parts that UNONEWS will be publishing once a week. Being at the present time Director of Academic Relations of Sistema UNO, Elaine shares with us her vast experience at the classroom and beyond.
V. Dr. B. Bloom´s Taxonomy of Cognitive Thought
NOTE: The first two levels (Knowledge and Comprehension) are necessary for BASIC learning, but BLOOM said that we MUST get the students at least to APPLICATION level for REAL learning to rake place.
The higher we go on the Taxonomy, the more profound will the students be thinking, and therefore, learning for long term, not just for a test.
The words given under each level indicate the type of activity that can be done to help students reach that specific level.
OBJECTIVE: high level, critical thinking by reaching application level and beyond.
Any grade level can reach all of these, even Kindergarten. Simply have the activity appropriate for the age and vocabulary level of the students.
By changing the VERB in an activity, you can raise the level of critical thinking required to complete an activity, leading to more profound and long-term learning.
THE SIX LEVELS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING:
recall or recognize information, multiple-choice test, recount facts or statistics, recall a process, rules, definitions; quote law or procedure arrange, define, describe, label, list, memorize, recognize, relate, reproduce, select, state
understand meaning, re-state data in one’s own words, interpret, extrapolate, translate explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement, suggest treatment, reaction or solution to given problem, create examples or metaphors; explain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarize, illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write, estimate, interpret, theorize, paraphrase, reference, example
use or apply knowledge, put theory into practice, use knowledge in response to real circumstances; put a theory into practical effect, demonstrate, solve a problem, manage an activity; use, apply, discover, manage, execute, solve, produce, implement, construct, change, prepare, conduct, perform, react, respond, role-play
4. Analysis (take apart)
interpret elements, organizational principles, structure, construction, internal relationships; quality, reliability of individual components; identify constituent parts and functions of a process or concept, or de-construct a methodology or process, making qualitative assessment of elements, relationships, values and effects; measure requirements or needs; analyze, break down, catalogue, compare, quantify, measure, test, examine, experiment, relate, graph, diagram, plot, extrapolate, value, divide
5. Synthesis (create / build)
develop new unique structures, systems, models, approaches, ideas; creative thinking, operations; develop plans or procedures, design solutions, integrate methods, resources, ideas, parts; create teams or new approaches, write protocols or contingencies; develop, plan, build, create, design, organize, revise, formulate, propose, establish, assemble, integrate, re-arrange, modify
choose, decide which is better or best, weighted opinions of things, assess effectiveness of whole concepts, in relation to values, outputs, efficacy, viability; critical thinking, strategic comparison and review; judgment relating to external criteria; review, justify, assess, present a case for, defend, report on, investigate, direct, appraise, argue, project-manage.